China is developing an eco-friendly agriculture and has continued making progress in green agricultural development. Along with the formulation and implementation of the National Agricultural Sustainable Development Plan (2015-2030) and Opinions on Innovating Institutional Mechanisms to Promote Green Agricultural Development, the first batch of 40 national green agricultural development pioneer zones have been identified. A special campaign aimed at zero growth of chemical fertilisers and pesticides by 2020 was launched and 300 zones have been designated to demonstrate how to reduce chemical fertiliser use and increase efficiency.
China has implemented several nutrition action plans and the nutrition and health status of its people has been continuously improved. The Outline of Food and Nutrition Development in China (2014-2020) and National Nutrition Plan (2017-2030) are implemented to secure the food and nutrition needs of children, pregnant women, the elderly and other groups in need. The country has reached ahead of schedule the 2020 targets of stunting and low weight among children under five years of age1 . Growth of obesity among children continues to improve, so does children’s physiques. The nutrition improvement programme for rural compulsory education students has registered good progress, already benefiting 37 million students by 2018. China has sped up the development of modern seed industry and established a national system for the management, protection and utilisation of agricultural germplasms and livestock and poultry genetic resources. To protect genetic resources, the third nationwide general survey and collection of crop germplasms were conducted. The country has created 199 national livestock and poultry genetic resources conservation farms, conservation areas and gene banks and 458 provincial conservation farms (areas) and identified 52 major hybrid rice and hybrid corn seed production counties and 100 regional breeding bases for improved varieties. The National Action Plan for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Forest Genetic Resources (2015- 2025) was issued to strengthen the development and management of the national forest germplasm conservatory.China has strengthened international cooperation in agriculture and helped to improve the technological level and capacity of recipient countries. It has been deeply involved in the negotiations of WTO disciplines on domestic support in an effort to tackle unfair practices in this regard with a view to improving the terms of trade in agricultural produces for developing countries and promoting agricultural development. Development of overseas agricultural cooperation demonstration zones and agricultural foreign cooperation experimental zones has been advanced. By 2018, 24 agricultural technology demonstration centres had been established in 23 developing countries in Asia and Africa and more than 330 agricultural experts and vocational teachers have been sent to train the locals. China also hosts agricultural training courses for people from Asia, Africa, Latin America and South Pacific. More than 43,000 people have been trained. Over 100 projects of technical cooperation and supporting facilities have been carried out in the least developed countries (LDCs). China set up the International Training Centre on Forest Genetic Resources in 2016 and has since held three international forest genetic resources training courses, benefiting over 300 people from more than 20 developing countries.
1 According to China’s National Plan on Implementation of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, under-five stunting rate should be below 7% and low weight rate should be below 5%.
Goal 3 The national essential medicine system has been further improved and the 2018 edition of the national essential medicines list has been released, with types of listed medicines increased from 520 to 685, visibly enhancing access to medicines. Every county now has one to two county-level public hospitals, every township has its hospital and every village its clinic. In 2018, 309,000 general practitioners were trained and qualified and the number of general practitioners per 10,000 people increased to 2.22
Bearing in mind the physical and mental health of the entire population, China implements a comprehensive chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCD) prevention and control strategy. The Medium-to-Long Term Plan for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases (2017-2025) has been formulated and implemented and hypertension, diabetes and oldage health management have been identified as basic public health service items throughout the country. The authorities have created 365 national demonstration areas for comprehensive NCD prevention and control and campaigned for a healthy lifestyle with reduced intakes of salt, sugar and oil and greater attention to oral health, healthy weight and healthy bones. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines have been revised to standardise the uses of narcotic and psychotropic drugs. The Guiding Opinions on Strengthening Psychological Health Service were published in 2016 and pilots on the development of a social psychological service system were launched earlier this year
About 1,100 Chinese health workers are now providing free medical services for local people in 56 countries around the world. Programme “Bright Journey” brings gratuitous cataract treatment to needy people in more than 20 countries. China actively assists other countries in building medical facilities, donates medicines and devices and supports capacity-building. In recent years, China has provided emergency medical and public health assistance on over 50 occasions, assisted African countries in their fights against major disease outbreaks such as Ebola and yellow fever and supported the development of the African Center for Disease Control and Prevention. More than 70 projects have been implemented in the LDCs, covering health promotion, disease control, training of physicians and nurses and malaria prevention. The China-Comoros project on fast elimination of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy has helped Comoros achieve zero malaria death
... strengthen global health cooperation and exchanges, including more activities within the frameworks of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the China-Africa Health Action and sharing of Chinese solutions and practical experience. China will also actively promote innovation, research and development in the field of medical science and encourage transfer and transformation of scientific and technological achievements.
China has worked hard to provide high school education for more people and improved markedly the level of higher education and vocational education. At the end of 2018, the national gross enrolment rate for high schools reached 88.8%; there were 11,800 vocational colleges, involving about 100,000 centres of specific skills; there were 26.855 million students in secondary vocational education and general junior colleges, with majors in all fields of the national economy; there were 2,379 technical colleges enrolling nearly 3.5 million students, with an employment rate of 97.7%; there were 2,663 colleges and universities with 38.33 million students enrolled and the gross enrolment rate for higher education was 48.1%.
China has been working on information infrastructure for education and facilitating deep integration of information technology with education and teaching. In March 2019, 97.6% primary and secondary schools across the country were connected to the Internet, up from 25% in 2012. The proportion of schools having multimedia classrooms increased from less than 40% to 93%. The 64,000 teaching sites nationwide all have access to digital education resources. More than 14 million primary and secondary school teachers now share their high-quality courses at the national educational resources public service platform. More than 60% of teachers and nearly 50% of students have created their own online learning spaces.
China has educational cooperation and exchanges with 188 countries and regions and 46 important international organisations. It is the largest destination country for overseas students in Asia and the third largest in the world. Through various channels, the Chinese Government offers scholarships to students from developing countries. In 2018, more than 50,000 students from developing countries received financial support. From September 2015 to March 2019, China provided other developing countries with a total of 3,900 diploma and degree education places and trained for them about 2,000 teachers.
Goal 5 gender equality
The first priority is to strengthen the protection of women’s rights and interests by further promoting the formulation of relevant plans and regulations. Research will be conducted to formulate an Outline for the Development of Chinese Women 2021-2030, which will identify new objectives and strategic measures on the basis of China’s need to promote gender equality and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. The second priority is to further strengthen public health services for women’s health. China will further develop and strengthen the capacity of obstetrics departments and critically-ill maternal and neonatal treatment centres in medical institutions at all levels. Special attention will be paid to pregnancy and labour at maternally advanced age and pregnancy after cesarean section, with high-risk cases managed specifically and critically-illed newborns given more visits. Public health services for women and children will be further materialised and the capacity to serve women and children’s health be further improved. The third priority is women’s all-round development by participating in and sharing socio-economic development. More support will be given to women by way of employment and entrepreneurship skills training, subsidised loans and tax reliefs. The government stands firmly to eliminate gender discrimination in employment and strengthen special labour protection for female employees. Greater efforts will be made to train women talents and select women cadres. China will enable women and children anywhere to enjoy convenient public legal service by stepping up publicity, increasing access, opening public legal service sites and improving the village/ neighbourhood legal counsel system.
The National Soil and Water Conservation Plan (2015-2030) has been formulated and implemented to promote soil and water conservation. In 2018, an additional 64,000 square kilometres of land suffering soil erosion was treated and 345 ecologically clean small watersheds were identified. The Action Plan for Comprehensive Control of Overexploitation of Groundwater in North China has been implemented and systematic actions taken to rectify overexploitation in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei.
The first priority is to specify the basic water security target for rural residents and make sure that all localities fully accomplish the targets and tasks identified in the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan on Consolidating and Upgrading Drinking Water Safety in Villages. By the end of 2020, drinking water will be secured for all registered poor population and the level of water supply security for 60 million rural people will be improved. The second priority is to further improve the legal system to strengthen the division and fulfillment of responsibilities for water safety and law enforcement supervision. A system enabling scientific and technological innovation will be developed to accelerate the transformation and application of research results. Actions will be taken to improve quality and efficiency of urban sewage treatment, make up for insufficient sewage collection and treatment facilities at accelerated speed and promote the use of reclaimed water. The third priority is to speed up work related to water distribution in major river basins, rationally develop and optimise the allocation of water resources and strictly control the intensity of water resources development and utilisation. Efforts will be made to control groundwater overdraft in North China and to promote water conservation, loss reduction and uses of unconventional water sources. Comprehensive prevention and control of soil erosion and supervision over soil and water conservation will be strengthened in an all-round way. The country will also strengthen water-related SouthSouth Cooperation and cross-border river cooperation.
The Chinese Government has integrated the energy-related sustainable development goal and related targets in national plans. The Energy Production and Consumption Revolution Strategy (2016-2030), the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Energy Development and the Thirteenth Five-Year Plan for Renewable Energy Development specify the medium- and long-term objectives, short-term targets and main tasks for energy development. China has basically eliminated energy poverty, sped up restructuring of the energy mix, upgraded clean energy equipment and technologies and further strengthened international cooperation and exchanges.
China has made vigorous efforts to develop and utilise renewable energies and its energy mix has been further optimised. China sticks to the direction of clean and low-carbon energy and actively develops renewable energy sources such as hydropower, wind and solar. Its Energy Production and Consumption Revolution Strategy (2016-2030) proposes to increase the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption to 15% by 2020 and 20% by 2030. By the end of 2018, the total installed capacity of renewables had reached 728 million kilowatts, up 12% year on year, accounting for 38.3% of the total installed capacity in China, up 1.7 percentage points from the year before. China has the largest scale of renewable energy development and utilisation in the world. In 2018, power generated by renewables reached 1.87 trillion kilowatt-hours, 170 billion more than the previous year, accounting for 26.7% of the total electricity generation, up 0.2 percentage points over the previous year.
To intensify research, development and spread of energy-saving technologies, China published the National Promotional Catalogue of Key Energy-Saving and Low-Carbon Technologies (Section on Energy-Saving Technologies), listing 260 priority technologies in 13 industries and expressing support to integrated application of energy-saving technologies.
China has increased investments to promote continuous upgrading of clean energy equipment manufacturing technologies. The country vigorously develops these technologies and is now capable of manufacturing some core equipment such as gigawatt-level mixed flow hydropower units and 400,000-kilowatt pumped storage units. It has researched into and developed on its own LHD tidal current energy equipment to an internationally leading level. China has realised the mass production and commercial application of 1.5MW-5MW wind turbines, started production of offshore large capacity wind turbines (7.6MW) and decreased the starting wind speed of low-speed wind turbines. In photovoltaic power generation, the conversion efficiencies of monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon batteries have already reached 21.8% and 19.2% respectively. The output of photovoltaic modules reached 85.7 million kilowatts in 2018. China has strengthened international exchanges and cooperation in energy and provided support for other developing countries. China has been introducing advanced technologies from other countries through experience sharing, technical exchanges and specific projects, engaging in joint research and technical cooperation on ocean energy with relevant countries and promoting development of China’s clean energy industry. It has actively assisted other developing countries in building energy infrastructure and providing clean energy equipment. It has also helped others to increase the penetration of modern energy and clean energy and played an important role in tackling local power shortages. The 8th Clean Energy Ministerial Meeting was held in Beijing to carry out activities within the ASEAN clean energy capacity building programme, provide capacity building training for ASEAN energy authorities, share experiences in power industry development and support relevant countries in developing sustainable modern energy services.
Renewable energies are developing rapidly in China. But the country is still challenged by low efficiency of the overall energy system, lack of integration, mutual complementarity or cascade utilisation among different functional systems such as electricity, heat and gas and salient mismatches in energy resources allocation across provinces. China will focus on the following priorities in the future: The first priority is to continue improving energy efficiency and vigorously advocate energy conservation. The double controls over total energy 2030 35 9/14/2019 1:02:31 AM 36 China’s Progress Report on Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2019) consumption and energy intensity will be further implemented with a view to reducing by 2020 energy intensity by 15% compared with 2015 and keeping total energy consumption within 5 billion tonnes of standard coal. Energy saving must be a constant theme in the whole process of socio-economic and energy development. Measures will include strengthening energy conservation in key areas, consolidating energy-saving management by key energy users, establishing and improving the system of energy conservation laws, regulations and standards, increasing research, development and promotion of energy-saving technologies and strictly containing excessive growth of energy consumption so as to support stable and healthy socioeconomic development with less energy consumption. The second priority is to increase substantially the share of renewables. Actions will be taken to actively develop hydro, wind and photovoltaic power generation plus geothermal, biomass and ocean energies as well as other renewable energy sources, strengthen overall planning of power supply and power grid, actively develop smart power grid with science-based arrangement of capacities in peak regulation, frequency modulation and energy storage and effectively tackle wind, water and light curtailments. The third priority is to strengthen its capacity of scientific and technological innovation in energy. Measures will be taken to increase financial and policy support, promote building up the innovation capacity, facilitate research and development of key technologies and equipment, accelerate the transformation of scientific and technological results into real productive forces and reduce the cost of new energy development and use.
Goal 8 decent work etc
China has sped up supply-side structural reforms and expanded new development momentums. The capacity reduction, de-stocking, deleveraging, cost reduction and underdeveloped areas improvement interventions have led to remarkable results. From 2016 to 2018, the iron and steel production capacity was reduced by over 150 million tonnes and coal production capacity was reduced by over 810 million tonnes. Resolute actions have been taken to dispose of the "zombie enterprises". The implementation measures for capacity replacement in traditional highly energy-consuming industries have been published and advanced practical energy-saving and environmentalfriendly processes, technologies and equipment have been rolled out. The service industry has become a main driving force of economic growth. In 2018, the service industry produced an added value of RMB 47 trillion and its contribution to economic growth was 59.7%. The growths of high-tech and equipment manufacturing sectors are obviously faster than that of general industry. To create new momentums for economic development, China has produced a series of documents, such as the Guidelines on Deepening the Integrated Development between the Manufacturing Industry and Internet, the White Paper on Big Data Standardisation, the Three-Year Action Plan for Promoting Development of a New Generation Artificial Intelligence Industry (2018-2020) and the Guidelines of the State Council on Deepening “Internet+ Advanced Manufacturing Industry” to Develop the Industrial Internet. From 2015 to 2018, 307 pilot demonstration projects of intelligent manufacturing were implemented in four batches. China has further pushed forward the reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers and improve regulation and services as well as the business system reform. It has also implemented 2030 38 9/14/2019 1:02:31 AM 39 China’s Progress Report on Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2019) the Plan for Promoting Inclusive Finance Development (2016-2020), thus revitalising the development of local economies and small and micro enterprises
China promotes international cooperation and helps other developing countries to be better integrated into multilateral trade. More than 160 trade promotion and assistance projects such as customs facilities and personnel training have been provided for other developing countries, especially some least developed ones in Africa. China actively promotes industrial connection and capacity cooperation with Africa and strongly supports Africa to improve the soft and hard conditions for internal and external trade and investment. Chinese enterprises are encouraged to expand investment in Africa. China has been increasing imports from Africa, especially products other than resources, implementing trade facilitation projects and supporting African countries in developing their economies and improving employment. II. Next Steps The Chinese economy now faces increasing downward pressure. Consumption growth is slowing down and growth of effective investment is sluggish. There are many difficulties in the real economy. Financing difficulties confronting private and small and micro businesses have not been effectively alleviated and the business environment is far from meeting expectations of market players. The ability of indigenous innovation is not strong enough and China lags prominently behind others with regard to some critical core technologies. Employment is under great pressure and structural contradictions are prominent. In light of these, China will focus on the following priorities: The first priority is to innovate and improve the approaches of macro-control and maintain a stable and healthy economic development. Efforts will be made to push forward supply-side structural reforms and improve the quality and core competitiveness of the manufacturing industry. We will further implement the strategy of innovation-driven development and vigorously promote the real economy. We will also accelerate reforms in key areas and continuously stimulate growth momentum and market vitality. The second priority is to stick to the employment-first strategy and implement a more proactive employment policy, focusing on the employment and entrepreneurship of young people such as college graduates, adopting a holistic approach to promote the employment of poor women, people with disability and other groups of people experiencing difficulties in both urban and rural areas and maintaining the overall stability of the employment 2030 40 9/14/2019 1:02:31 AM 41 China’s Progress Report on Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (2019) situation. At the same time, we will continue strengthening law enforcement, improving regulation over labour and employment and safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of all kinds of workers. The third priority is to further develop and optimise an environment conducive to entrepreneurship and innovation. China will fully implement and further improve fiscal and financial support for small and medium-sized enterprises, improve the service and financing environment for them and steer them and the private sector at large towards development through innovation and transformation. International cooperation will be deepened to assist developing countries in economic and trade development, especially the least developed ones.